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Non-market forms of socialism usually include a system of accounting based on calculation-in-kind to value resources and goods.
The term "socialist economics" may also be applied to the analysis of former and existing economic systems that were implemented in socialist states, such as in the works of Hungarian economist János Kornai.
Engels wrote about this at length in the book The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State, which was based on the unpublished notes of Marx on the work of Lewis Henry Morgan.
A socialist economic system is characterised by social ownership and operation of the means of production that may take the form of autonomous cooperatives or direct public ownership wherein production is carried out directly for use.Some demands went no further than a wish to mitigate the capitalist market's worst effects.Later, a full socialist program developed, arguing for systemic transformation.As socialism developed, so did the socialist system of economics.The first theories which came to hold the term "socialism" began to be formulated in the late 18th century, and were termed "socialism" early in the 19th century.
These included many religious movements, such as the Christian socialism of the Shakers in America and the Hutterites.